The only known surface habitats of the Barton Springs Salamander are the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer and its contributing zone. They have been found in all four of the springs collectively known as Barton Springs: Parthenia Spring within Barton Springs Pool, Eliza Spring, Old Mill Spring (Sunken Garden), and Upper Barton Spring. They are most often observed in spring flow under gravel and small cobble a single to a few layers deep that is clear of fine sediment. Unobstructed interstitial space (the space between the rocks) is critical because it provides hiding space from predators and habitat for prey items (macroinvertebrates). When the interstitial space in filled with fine sediment or becomes compacted, the salamanders can no longer move within the safety of the substrate and the macroinvertebrates cannot colonize beneath the rocks. Salamanders are occasionally seen in bryophytes (aquatic moss) and macrophytes (aquatic plants) within the springs.